Conditional Sentence

Conditional sentence (kalimat bersyarat) adalah kalimat yang di dalamnya mengandung syarat. Alat yang digunakan sebagai syarat meliputi: if (jika), unless (kecuali jika), provided that (asalkan), on condition that (dengan syarat), dan susunan inversi.

 

  1. A. STRUKTUR KALIMAT BERSYARAT

 

Conditional terdiri dari dua klausa: if clause (anak kalimat) dan main clause (induk kalimat).

 

TIPE TENSE IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE FAKTA
1 PRESENT If + S + VI S + will + VI FUTURE
2 PAST If + S + V2 S + would + VI PRESENT
3 PAST PERFECT If + S + had + V3 S + would have + V3 PAST

Keterangan:

  1. Tipe 1 merupakan pengandaian yang kemungkinan akan

terjadi. Tipe 2 dan 3 merupakan pengandaian yang tidak

mungkin terjadi. Fakta untuk tipe 2 adalah present (tidak

terjadi di waktu sekarang) dan untuk tipe 3 adalah past

(tidak terjadi di waktu lampau).

  1. To be yang digunakan untuk semua subyek dengan Past
  2. Letak If Clause tidak selalu di depan Main Clause. Salahsatu  dari  klausa  tersebut  dapat  diletakkan  di  depan.

    Apabila  anak  kalimat  berada  di  depan  induk  kalimat,

    dalam tata tulis menggunakan koma setelah anak kalimat

    (If Clause).

Contoh:

  1. If he studies hard, he will pass the exam. (It is possible

that he will pass the exam)

  1. If he studied hard, he would pass the exam. (He doesn’t

study, so he doesn’t pass the exam)

  1. If he had studied, he would have passed the exam. (He

didn’t study, so he didn’t pass the exam)

 

Untuk mencari fakta no. 2 dan 3, kita bisa memakai

RUMUS PRAKTIS berikut. Perhatikan!

PENGANDAIAN FAKTA
V1 Possibility (will + V1)
V2/were V1/is, am, are
Had V3 V2/was, were
Kalimat Negatif (-) Kalimat Positif (+)
Kalimat Positif (+) Kalimat Negatif(-)

 

Contoh:

PENGANDAIAN

If he studied he would pass the exam.  (V2 (+))

If he had studied he would have passed the exam.

(Had V3 (+))

 

FAKTA

He doesn’t study so he doesn’t pass the exam. (VI (-))

He didn’t study so he didn’t pass the exam. (V2 (-))

 

Keterangan:

Pengandaian  pada  kalimat  2  dalam  bentuk  positif  V2

(studied), maka fakta harus bentuk negatif VI (doesn’t study).

Pengandaian pada kalimat 3 dalam bentuk positif had V3

(had studied), maka fakta harus negatif V2 (didn’t study).

  1. BENTUK INVERSI/SUSUN BALIK

 

Tipe 1 diawali dengan should, tipe 2 diawali dengan

were, dan tipe 3 diawali dengan had.

Contoh:

Tipe Noninversi
1

 

2

 

3

If you meet Ann, tell her that I will go to her

house.

If the weather were fine now, we would go

swimming.

If he had ridden his bike fast, he would not

have been late to school.

 

 

Tipe Inversi
1

 

2

 

3

Should you meet Ann, tell her that I will go to

her house.

Were the weather fine now, we would go

swimming.

Had he ridden his bike fast, he would not

have been late to school.

Pinterin

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