1. A. PRESENT TENSES

 

  1. Simple Present Tense

 

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S  +  V1    /  Vs/es    +  Complement  (C)/Object  (O)/ Adverb (A)

(─)  S + don’t/doesn’t + V1 + C/O/A (? )  Do/Does + S + V1 + C/O/A?

 

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + be (is, am, are) + C

(─)  S + be (is, am, are) + not + C

(? )  Be (is, am , are) + S + C?

Keterangan:

  • Kalimat verbal: kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja.
  • Kalimat nominal: kalimat yang predikatnya bukan kata

kerja.

  • Do dipakai untuk subjek: I, you,we, they.
  • Does dipakai untuk subjek: He, she, it.
  • Am dipakai untuk subjek: I
  • Is dipakai untuk subjek: He, she, it
  • Are dipakai untuk subjek: We, They

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I go to school everyday.

()  I don’t go to school everyday. (? )   Do you go to school everyday? Kalimat nominal:

(+)    She is hungry.

()  She is not hungry. (? )   Is she hungry?

 

Fungsi:

  1. Untuk  menunjukkan    kebiasaan    (ditandai    dengan

keterangan frekuensi: everyday, usually, every, always,

never, once, twice, dll). Contoh: They visit me everyday.

  1. Untuk menunjukkan kebenaran umum.

Contoh: The world is round.

  1. Untuk menunjukkan  keadaan  pada  waktu  sekarang

(factual state). Contoh: I want a glass of coffee.

 

  1. Present Continuous Tense

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + be (is, am, are) + V-ing  + C/O/A

()  S + be (is, am, are) + not V-ing  + C/O/A

(? )  Be (is, am, are) + S + V-ing + C/O/A?

 

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + be (is, am, are) + being + C

()  S + be (is, am, are) + not being + C

(? )  Be (is, am, are) + S + being + C?

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I am repairing your bicycle now.

(─)   I am not repairing your bicycle now.

(? )   Are you repairing my bicycle now?

 

Kalimat nominal:

(+)    She is being very sad right now.

()   She is not being very sad right now.

(? )   Is she being very sad right now?

 

Fungsi:

  1. Untuk   menyatakan   suatu   perbuatan/peristiwa   yang

sedang berlangsung saat ini (sedang dibicarakan).

Keterangan waktu yang biasa digunakan: now, at this

moment, look!, right now, at  present, listen!

Contoh: He is reading an English text now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan situasi yang berubah-ubah. Contoh:

The population of the world is rising very fast.


  1. Present Perfect Tense

 

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + has/have  + V3 + C/O/A

(─)  S + has/have not + V3 +C/O/A

(? )  Has/have +S + V3 +C/O/A?

 

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + has/have + been + C

(─)  S + has/have not + been + C

(? )  Has/have + S + been + C?

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I have opened the door since 7 o’clock.

(─)  I have not opened the door. (? )   Have you opened the door? Kalimat nominal:

(+)    She has been there since this morning. (─)  She has not been there till now.

(? )   Has she been there since this morning?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang telah terjadi dan masih

berhubungan dengan sekarang. Keterangan waktu: already,

just, yet, since, for, lately, these weeks/month, so  far,  till

now,  recently. Contoh: They have been here since 2 o’clock.

 

  1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + has/have  + been + V-ing  + C/O/A

(─)  S + has/have not + been + V-ing  + C/O/A

(? )  Has/have + S + been + V-ing  + C/O/A?

 

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + has/have + been + being + C

(─)  S + has/have not + been + being + C

(? )  Has/have + S + been + being + C?

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I have been waiting for two hours.

()  I have not been meeting her since 1998. (? )   Have you been waiting for two hours? Kalimat nominal:

(+)    She has been being in the hospital for two weeks. ()  She has not been being here for five minutes.

(? )   Has she been being here for two hours?

 

Fungsi:

–        Untuk  menyatakan pekerjaan yang  dimulai  di  waktu

lampau dan masih dikerjakan sampai saat ini.

–        Keterangan waktu yang biasa digunakan: for, all this

morning, since, the whole day.

Contoh: He has been writing a letter for 1 hour.

 

  1. FUTURE TENSES

 

  1. Simple Future Tense

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + will/shall  +V1+ C/O/A

()  S + will/shall not + V1 + C/O/A

(? )  Will/shall + S + V1 + C/O/A?

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + will/shall + be + C

(─)  S + will/shall not + be + C

(? )  Will + S + be + C?

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I will go to Jakarta next week.

(─)  I will not go to Jakarta next week. (? )   Will you go to Jakarta next week? Kalimat nominal:

(+)    I will be in Jakarta tomorrow. (─)  I will not be there tomorrow. (? )   Will you be there tomorrow? Fungsi:

  1. Untuk menyatakan pekerjaan yang akan dikerjakan di waktu yang akan datang. Keterangan waktu: the day after tomorrow, tomorrow next, tonight, soon, next week, dll. Contoh: John will come to see you tomorrow.
  2. Untuk menunjukkan peristiwa yang akan terjadi apabila syarat peristiwa lain terpenuhi. Contoh: You will find many foreign tourists when you come to Bali.

 

  1. Future Continuous Tense

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + will/shall  + be + V-ing + C/O/A

()  S + will/shall not + be + V-ing + C/O/A

(? )  Will/shall + S + be + V-ing  + C/O/A?

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + will/shall + be + being + C

()  S + will/shall not + be + being + C

(? )  Will/shall + S + be + being + C?

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I will be coming there next week.

(─)  I will not be coming there next week. (? )   Will you be coming there next week? Kalimat nominal:

(+)    I will be being in London next month.

(─)  I will not be being in London next month.

(? )   Will you be being in London next month?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk menyatakan pekerjaan yang akan sedang dikerjakan di

waktu yang akan datang. Keterangan waktu: next/tomorrow

at … o ‘clock, this time tomorrow/next. Contoh: I will be

visiting my girlfriend tomorrow at 3 o’clock.

 

  1. Future Perfect Tense

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + will/shall  +have + V3 + C/O/A

()  S + will/shall not + have + V3 + C/O/A

(? )  Will/shall + S + have + V3 + C/O/A?

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + will/shall + have + been + C

()  S + will/shall not + have + been + C

(? )  Will/shall + S + have + been + C?

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I will have finished this job by the end of this week.

()  I will not have finished this job by the end of this week. (? )   Will you have finished this job by the end of this week? Kalimat nominal:

(+)    I will have been in Jogja by the time you get there.

()  I will not have been in Jogja by the time you get there. (? )   Will you have been in Jogja by the end of this week?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk menyatakan pekerjaan yang akan telah diselesaikan

di waktu yang akan datang. Keterangan waktu: by the time,

by the end of, in 3 weeks/ years/ months for, after/ before +

S + V1  after/ before + S +V1.

Contoh: will have been visited my girlfriend by this time

next week.

 

  1. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + will/shall +have + been + V-ing  + C/O/A

(─)  S + will/shall not + have + been + V-ing  + C/O/A

(? )  Will/shall + S + have + been + V-ing  + C/O/A?

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + will/shall + have + been + being + C

(─)  S + will/shall not + have + been + being + C

(? )  Will/shall + S + have + been + being + C?

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I will have been finishing this job by the end of this

week.

(─)  I will not have been finishing this job by the end of this

week.

(? )   Will you have been finishing this job by the end of this

week?

Kalimat nominal:

(+)    I will have been being in Japan by the end of this year.

(─)  I will not have been being in Japan by the end of this

year.

(? )   Will you have been being in Japan by the end of this

year?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk menunjukkan peristiwa yang akan telah terjadi dan

masih akan berlanjut pada saat peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu

mendatang. Keterangan waktu: for, by the time, by the end

of, dll. Contoh: He will have been sleeping for 2 hours before

she arrives.

 

  1. PAST TENSE

 

  1. Simple Past Tense

 

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + V2 + C/O/A

()  S + did not + V1 + C/O/A

(? )  Did + S + V1 + C/O/A?

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + be (was, were) + C

()  S + be (was,were) not + C

(? )  Was/were + S + C?

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    John came here yesterday.

(─)  John did not come here yesterday. (? )   Did John come here yesterday? Kalimat nominal:

(+)    She was in the hospital yesterday.

(─)  She was not in the hospital yesterday. (? )   Were you in the hospital yesterday?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk   menyatakan   peristiwa   yang   terjadi   pada   waktu

lampau. Keterangan waktu:  last, ago, previously, yesterday,

in 1973, the day before yesterday.

Contoh: He bought a new bicycle last year.

 


  1. Past Continuous Tense

 

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + be (was, were) + V-ing  + C/O/A

()  S + be (was, were) not + V-ing + C/O/A

(? )  Be (was,were) + S + V-ing  + C/O/A?

 

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + be (was, were) + being + C

()  S + be (was, were) not + being + C

(? )  Be (was,were) + S + being + C?

 

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I was sleeping when she arrived.

(─)   I was not sleeping when she arrived.

(? )   Were you sleeping when she came yesterday?

Kalimat nominal:

(+)    She was being at home when her father died.

(─)   She was not being at home when her father died.

(? )   Were you being at home when your father died?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk menunjukkan kegiatan atau peristiwa yang sedang

berlangsung pada masa lampau.

Keterangan waktu yang biasa digunakan: when, as, while.

Contoh:

–     John was reading a book when I came.

–     John was being at home while I was reading.

 

  1. Past Perfect Tense

 

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + had + V3 + C/O/A

()  S + had not + V3 + C/O/A

(? )  Had + S + V3 + C/O/A?

 

Kalimat Nominal  :

(+)   S + had + been + C

()  S + had not + been + C

(? )  Had + S + been + C?

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I had gone to Jakarta before I met her.

(─)   I had not gone to Jakarta before I met her.

(? )   Had you gone to Jakarta before you met her?

Kalimat nominal:

(+)    He had been in Jakarta before he got the bad news.

(─)   He had not been in Jakarta before he got the bad news.

(? )   Had he been in Jakarta before he got the bad news?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sudah selesai dikerjakan

pada waktu lampau.  Tenses ini ditandai oleh peristiwa lain

yang terjadi pada masa lampau. Keterangan waktu: for … ,

when/after/before + S + V2 , after/before + S + V2

Contoh: Johny had studied English for 2 hours before I came.

 

  1. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

 

Kalimat Verbal:

(+)   S + had + been + V-ing  + C/O/A

()  S + had not + been + V-ing  + C/O/A

(? )  Had + S + been + V-ing  + C/O/A?

Kalimat Nominal:

(+)   S + had + been + being + C

()  S + had not + been + being + C

(? )  Had + S + been + being + C?

 

Contoh:

Kalimat verbal:

(+)    I had been living in London for 2 years before I moved to

Italy.

(─)  I had not been living in London for 2 years before I

moved to Italy.

(? )   Had you been living in London for 2 years before you

moved to Italy?

Kalimat nominal:

(+)    He had been being famous before he won the singing

competition.

(─)  He  had  not  been  being  famous  before  he  won  the singing competition.

(? )   Had he been being famous before he won the singing competition?

 

Fungsi:

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang masih dikerjakan pada

saat kejadian lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Tenses ini juga

ditandai oleh peristiwa lain yang terjadi pada masa lampau.

Adverb pada tenses ini adalah sama dengan bentuk Present

Perfect Tense.

Keterangan waktu: for … , when/after/before + S + V2 , after/

before + S + V2

Contoh:

–      Johny had been studying English for 2 hours before I

came.

–      They had been being in the office when their boss came.

 

 

 

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